Scaling and root planing (calculus removal)
Dental calculus or tartar is calcified dental plaque. It is caused by the continual accumulation of minerals from saliva on plaque on the teeth, crowns and dentures. Its rough surface provides an ideal medium for further plaque formation, threatening the health of the gingiva. Brushing and flossing can remove plaque; however, once calculus formed, it can only be professionally removed with ultrasonic tools and specialized sharp instruments called scalers.
Closed curettage is used when calculus formed below the gumline. Root scaling means removal of calculus from the roor surface, root planing is smoothing of roughened root surfaces and the gingival curettage is designed to remove diseased soft tissue lining of the periodontal pocket. During closed curettage it is done without direct visualization of the root surfaces.
Open curettage means subgingival cleaning and planing of root surfaces, after creating a gingival flap, the gingiva is then reflected to such an extant that root planing and gingival curettage can be performed with direct vision.
Crown lengthening is done when a tooth needs to be restored, but there is not enough tooth structure above the gum line to support a filling or crown and a post and core restoration would not be able to resist horizontal forces. Crown lengthening is a surgical procedure to expose a greater amount of tooth structure to restore the tooth prosthetically. This is done by incising the gingival tissue around a tooth and, after temporarily displacing the soft tissue, predictably removing a given height of alveolar bone from the circumference of the tooth. After the lengthening procedure and making of a post and core sufficient vertical height will be grasped by the future crown to encircles the external dimension of residual tooth structure. This will reduce the incidence of fracture in the endodontically treated tooth.